The EBITDA Yield is a great way to determine a company’s profitability. This number is calculated by dividing a company’s earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization by the company’s enterprise value. Enterprise Value is calculated by taking the market capitalization plus debt, minority interest and preferred shares, minus total cash and cash equivalents. The EBITDA Yield for ULVAC, Inc. (TSE:6728) is 0.217769.

Individuals invest in order to get a return on the investment. Nobody enters the equity markets with the hope of losing money. Returns on investments may come in different forms. With any stock investment, there may be some level of risk involved. Understanding the risk is important and should be considered very carefully. Of course, the stock may go up and become a winner, or shares could sour and turn into losers. Returns in the stock market may often mimic the amount of risk. Generally speaking, the greater the risk, the greater the reward. With the greater chance of reward comes the greater chance of losses. Keeping a balanced and diversified portfolio can help manage the risk associated with investing in the stock market.

Another useful indicator to assist in detmining rank is the ERP5 Rank. This is an investment tool that analysts use to discover undervalued companies. The ERP5 looks at the Price to Book ratio, Earnings Yield, ROIC and 5 year average ROIC. The ERP5 of ULVAC, Inc. (TSE:6728) is 1122. The lower the ERP5 rank, the more undervalued a company is thought to be.

Looking further, the MF Rank (aka the Magic Formula) is a formula that pinpoints a valuable company trading at a good price. The formula is calculated by looking at companies that have a high earnings yield as well as a high return on invested capital. The MF Rank of ULVAC, Inc. (TSE:6728) is 1466. A company with a low rank is considered a good company to invest in. The Magic Formula was introduced in a book written by Joel Greenblatt, entitled, “The Little Book that Beats the Market”.

**Piotroski F-Score**

The Piotroski F-Score is a scoring system between 1-9 that determines a firm’s financial strength. The score helps determine if a company’s stock is valuable or not. The Piotroski F-Score of ULVAC, Inc. (TSE:6728) is 5. A score of nine indicates a high value stock, while a score of one indicates a low value stock. The score is calculated by the return on assets (ROA), Cash flow return on assets (CFROA), change in return of assets, and quality of earnings. It is also calculated by a change in gearing or leverage, liquidity, and change in shares in issue. The score is also determined by change in gross margin and change in asset turnover.

The Gross Margin Score is calculated by looking at the Gross Margin and the overall stability of the company over the course of 8 years. The score is a number between one and one hundred (1 being best and 100 being the worst). The Gross Margin Score of ULVAC, Inc. (TSE:6728) is 7.00000. The more stable the company, the lower the score. If a company is less stable over the course of time, they will have a higher score.

The Price Index is a ratio that indicates the return of a share price over a past period. The price index of ULVAC, Inc. (TSE:6728) for last month was 0.80501. This is calculated by taking the current share price and dividing by the share price one month ago. If the ratio is greater than 1, then that means there has been an increase in price over the month.

If the ratio is less than 1, then we can determine that there has been a decrease in price. Similarly, investors look up the share price over 12 month periods. The Price Index 12m for ULVAC, Inc. (TSE:6728) is 0.40645.

**Valuation**

ULVAC, Inc. (TSE:6728) presently has a current ratio of 1.64. The current ratio, also known as the working capital ratio, is a liquidity ratio that displays the proportion of current assets of a business relative to the current liabilities. The ratio is simply calculated by dividing current liabilities by current assets. The ratio may be used to provide an idea of the ability of a certain company to pay back its liabilities with assets. Typically, the higher the current ratio the better, as the company may be more capable of paying back its obligations.

The Value Composite One (VC1) is a method that investors use to determine a company’s value. The VC1 of ULVAC, Inc. (TSE:6728) is 15. A company with a value of 0 is thought to be an undervalued company, while a company with a value of 100 is considered an overvalued company. The VC1 is calculated using the price to book value, price to sales, EBITDA to EV, price to cash flow, and price to earnings. Similarly, the Value Composite Two (VC2) is calculated with the same ratios, but adds the Shareholder Yield. The Value Composite Two of ULVAC, Inc. (TSE:6728) is 12.

The Price to book ratio is the current share price of a company divided by the book value per share. The Price to Book ratio for ULVAC, Inc. TSE:6728 is 1.039376. A lower price to book ratio indicates that the stock might be undervalued. Similarly, Price to cash flow ratio is another helpful ratio in determining a company’s value. The Price to Cash Flow for ULVAC, Inc. (TSE:6728) is . This ratio is calculated by dividing the market value of a company by cash from operating activities. Additionally, the price to earnings ratio is another popular way for analysts and investors to determine a company’s profitability. The price to earnings ratio for ULVAC, Inc. (TSE:6728) is 4.221990. This ratio is found by taking the current share price and dividing by earnings per share.

**FCF**

The FCF Yield 5yr Average is calculated by taking the five year average free cash flow of a company, and dividing it by the current enterprise value. Enterprise Value is calculated by taking the market capitalization plus debt, minority interest and preferred shares, minus total cash and cash equivalents. The average FCF of a company is determined by looking at the cash generated by operations of the company. The Free Cash Flow Yield 5 Year Average of ULVAC, Inc. (TSE:6728) is 0.105529.

Investors are usually scouring the markets for that next great stock pick. Locating that special winner to jumpstart the portfolio may involve lots of diligent hard work. Filing through the massive amounts of data regarding public companies can be an overwhelming task. Many successful investors will approach the equity markets from various sides. This may include keeping a close eye on the fundamentals as well as the technical data. This may also include following sell-side analyst opinions and tracking what the big money institutions are buying or selling.

In terms of EBITDA Yield, ICA Gruppen AB (publ) (OM:ICA) currently has a value of 0.081897. This value is derived by dividing EBITDA by Enterprise Value.

Investors are constantly trying to make smarter decisions when it comes to dealing with the stock market. There are so many choices out there that it may become completely overwhelming at first. Starting with a baseline approach can help ease the burden of too much information. Developing the proper investment knowledge may take a lot of time and effort. Many investors may find out the hard way that shortcuts are not the answer to achieving long-term success in the stock market. Many people may occasionally get lucky and think they can do no wrong. Over time, this type of investor may see profits start to shrink and losses start to pile up. Many investors are bombarded with hot investment tips. It can be very tempting to take advice from someone who has actually made money in the markets previously. However, the old adage remains the same; past results may not indicate future results. Thinking that something that has worked in the past will no doubt work in the future can be a recipe for portfolio disaster. Individual investors who do their own thorough research should be much better positioned to make the proper decisions when the time comes.

**ROIC**

The Return on Invested Capital (aka ROIC) for ICA Gruppen AB (publ) (OM:ICA) is 0.150306. The Return on Invested Capital is a ratio that determines whether a company is profitable or not. It tells investors how well a company is turning their capital into profits. The ROIC is calculated by dividing the net operating profit (or EBIT) by the employed capital. The employed capital is calculated by subrating current liabilities from total assets. Similarly, the Return on Invested Capital Quality ratio is a tool in evaluating the quality of a company’s ROIC over the course of five years. The ROIC Quality of ICA Gruppen AB (publ) (OM:ICA) is 0.959799. This is calculated by dividing the five year average ROIC by the Standard Deviation of the 5 year ROIC. The ROIC 5 year average is calculated using the five year average EBIT, five year average (net working capital and net fixed assets). The ROIC 5 year average of ICA Gruppen AB (publ) (OM:ICA) is 0.107444.

Another useful indicator to assist in detmining rank is the ERP5 Rank. This is an investment tool that analysts use to discover undervalued companies. The ERP5 looks at the Price to Book ratio, Earnings Yield, ROIC and 5 year average ROIC. The ERP5 of ICA Gruppen AB (publ) (OM:ICA) is 6907. The lower the ERP5 rank, the more undervalued a company is thought to be.

Looking further, the MF Rank (aka the Magic Formula) is a formula that pinpoints a valuable company trading at a good price. The formula is calculated by looking at companies that have a high earnings yield as well as a high return on invested capital. The MF Rank of ICA Gruppen AB (publ) (OM:ICA) is 5931. A company with a low rank is considered a good company to invest in. The Magic Formula was introduced in a book written by Joel Greenblatt, entitled, “The Little Book that Beats the Market”.

**Piotroski F-Score**

The Piotroski F-Score is a scoring system between 1-9 that determines a firm’s financial strength. The score helps determine if a company’s stock is valuable or not. The Piotroski F-Score of ICA Gruppen AB (publ) (OM:ICA) is 6. A score of nine indicates a high value stock, while a score of one indicates a low value stock. The score is calculated by the return on assets (ROA), Cash flow return on assets (CFROA), change in return of assets, and quality of earnings. It is also calculated by a change in gearing or leverage, liquidity, and change in shares in issue. The score is also determined by change in gross margin and change in asset turnover.

**Gross Margin**

The Gross Margin Score is calculated by looking at the Gross Margin and the overall stability of the company over the course of 8 years. The score is a number between one and one hundred (1 being best and 100 being the worst). The Gross Margin Score of ICA Gruppen AB (publ) (OM:ICA) is 7.00000. The more stable the company, the lower the score. If a company is less stable over the course of time, they will have a higher score.

**Price Index**

The Price Index is a ratio that indicates the return of a share price over a past period. The price index of ICA Gruppen AB (publ) (OM:ICA) for last month was 0.98007. This is calculated by taking the current share price and dividing by the share price one month ago. If the ratio is greater than 1, then that means there has been an increase in price over the month. If the ratio is less than 1, then we can determine that there has been a decrease in price. Similarly, investors look up the share price over 12 month periods. The Price Index 12m for ICA Gruppen AB (publ) (OM:ICA) is 1.10717.

**Shareholder Yield, Shareholder Yield (Mebane Faber)**

The Shareholder Yield is a way that investors can see how much money shareholders are receiving from a company through a combination of dividends, share repurchases and debt reduction. The Shareholder Yield of ICA Gruppen AB (publ) (OM:ICA) is 0.034547. This percentage is calculated by adding the dividend yield plus the percentage of shares repurchased. Dividends are a common way that companies distribute cash to their shareholders. Similarly, cash repurchases and a reduction of debt can increase the shareholder value, too. Another way to determine the effectiveness of a company’s distributions is by looking at the Shareholder yield (Mebane Faber). The Shareholder Yield (Mebane Faber) of ICA Gruppen AB (publ) OM:ICA is 0.04099. This number is calculated by looking at the sum of the dividend yield plus percentage of sales repurchased and net debt repaid yield.

The Price to book ratio is the current share price of a company divided by the book value per share. The Price to Book ratio for ICA Gruppen AB (publ) OM:ICA is 1.980667. A lower price to book ratio indicates that the stock might be undervalued. Similarly, Price to cash flow ratio is another helpful ratio in determining a company’s value. The Price to Cash Flow for ICA Gruppen AB (publ) (OM:ICA) is 10.429350. This ratio is calculated by dividing the market value of a company by cash from operating activities. Additionally, the price to earnings ratio is another popular way for analysts and investors to determine a company’s profitability. The price to earnings ratio for ICA Gruppen AB (publ) (OM:ICA) is 17.897136. This ratio is found by taking the current share price and dividing by earnings per share.

Diversification can be an important aspect of any investor’s portfolio. Investors may choose to spread out stock holdings between foreign stocks and stocks with different market capitalizations. Investors may have to first become aware of the risk associated with owning a wide variety of stocks. Owning stocks that belong to different industries may also be a help to the success of the portfolio. Often times, sectors may trade off being market leaders. Owning all one sector may leave too much risk exposed if the sector suddenly tanks and falls out of favor with investors. Investors may need to occasionally do a strategic review of the equity portion of the portfolio. Knowing exactly what is held may help the investor when the time comes to make some adjustments.