Lee Enterprises, Incorporated (NYSE:LEE) has a current MF Rank of 474. Developed by hedge fund manager Joel Greenblatt, the intention of the formula is to spot high quality companies that are trading at an attractive price. The formula uses ROIC and earnings yield ratios to find quality, undervalued stocks. In general, companies with the lowest combined rank may be the higher quality picks.

One of the biggest downfalls of the individual investor is not being able to take losses when it becomes necessary. Of course nobody wants to take a loss, but the repercussions of not letting go of a losing stock can end up sealing the demise of the well-intentioned investor. Many professionals would probably agree that the pain of realizing a loss is more intense than the joy of picking a winner. Investors who become reluctant to sell losers may be delaying the inevitable and essentially suffocating the portfolio. Not addressing the losing side can have severe negative effects on the long-term health of the portfolio. Investors may have to find a way to face the music and sell when they realize that a trade has gone sour.

Free Cash Flow Growth (FCF Growth) is the free cash flow of the current year minus the free cash flow from the previous year, divided by last year’s free cash flow. The FCF Growth of Lee Enterprises, Incorporated (NYSE:LEE) is -0.278097. Free cash flow (FCF) is the cash produced by the company minus capital expenditure. This cash is what a company uses to meet its financial obligations, such as making payments on debt or to pay out dividends.

The Free Cash Flow Score (FCF Score) is a helpful tool in calculating the free cash flow growth with free cash flow stability – this gives investors the overall quality of the free cash flow. The FCF Score of Lee Enterprises, Incorporated (NYSE:LEE) is 0.476453. Experts say the higher the value, the better, as it means that the free cash flow is high, or the variability of free cash flow is low or both.

The Return on Invested Capital (aka ROIC) for Lee Enterprises, Incorporated (NYSE:LEE) is 0.608053. The Return on Invested Capital is a ratio that determines whether a company is profitable or not. It tells investors how well a company is turning their capital into profits. The ROIC is calculated by dividing the net operating profit (or EBIT) by the employed capital. The employed capital is calculated by subrating current liabilities from total assets. Similarly, the Return on Invested Capital Quality ratio is a tool in evaluating the quality of a company’s ROIC over the course of five years. The ROIC Quality of Lee Enterprises, Incorporated (NYSE:LEE) is 9.671699. This is calculated by dividing the five year average ROIC by the Standard Deviation of the 5 year ROIC. The ROIC 5 year average is calculated using the five year average EBIT, five year average (net working capital and net fixed assets). The ROIC 5 year average of Lee Enterprises, Incorporated (NYSE:LEE) is 0.467859.

**Shareholder Yield**

The Shareholder Yield is a way that investors can see how much money shareholders are receiving from a company through a combination of dividends, share repurchases and debt reduction. The Shareholder Yield of Lee Enterprises, Incorporated (NYSE:LEE) is -0.006400. This percentage is calculated by adding the dividend yield plus the percentage of shares repurchased. Dividends are a common way that companies distribute cash to their shareholders. Similarly, cash repurchases and a reduction of debt can increase the shareholder value, too. Another way to determine the effectiveness of a company’s distributions is by looking at the Shareholder yield (Mebane Faber). The Shareholder Yield (Mebane Faber) of Lee Enterprises, Incorporated NYSE:LEE is 0.40184. This number is calculated by looking at the sum of the dividend yield plus percentage of sales repurchased and net debt repaid yield.

The Value Composite One (VC1) is a method that investors use to determine a company’s value. The VC1 of Lee Enterprises, Incorporated (NYSE:LEE) is 14. A company with a value of 0 is thought to be an undervalued company, while a company with a value of 100 is considered an overvalued company. The VC1 is calculated using the price to book value, price to sales, EBITDA to EV, price to cash flow, and price to earnings. Similarly, the Value Composite Two (VC2) is calculated with the same ratios, but adds the Shareholder Yield. The Value Composite Two of Lee Enterprises, Incorporated (NYSE:LEE) is 22.

Investors may be interested in viewing the Gross Margin score on shares of Lee Enterprises, Incorporated (NYSE:LEE). The name currently has a score of 8.00000. This score is derived from the Gross Margin (Marx) stability and growth over the previous eight years. The Gross Margin score lands on a scale from 1 to 100 where a score of 1 would be considered positive, and a score of 100 would be seen as negative.

**ERP5 Rank**

The ERP5 Rank is an investment tool that analysts use to discover undervalued companies. The ERP5 looks at the Price to Book ratio, Earnings Yield, ROIC and 5 year average ROIC. The ERP5 of Lee Enterprises, Incorporated (NYSE:LEE) is 3750. The lower the ERP5 rank, the more undervalued a company is thought to be.

**C-Score – Montier**

Lee Enterprises, Incorporated (NYSE:LEE) currently has a Montier C-score of 3.00000. This indicator was developed by James Montier in an attempt to identify firms that were cooking the books in order to appear better on paper. The score ranges from zero to six where a 0 would indicate no evidence of book cooking, and a 6 would indicate a high likelihood. A C-score of -1 would indicate that there is not enough information available to calculate the score. Montier used six inputs in the calculation. These inputs included a growing difference between net income and cash flow from operations, increasing receivable days, growing day’s sales of inventory, increasing other current assets, decrease in depreciation relative to gross property plant and equipment, and high total asset growth.

**F Score**

At the time of writing, Lee Enterprises, Incorporated (NYSE:LEE) has a Piotroski F-Score of 8. The F-Score may help discover companies with strengthening balance sheets. The score may also be used to spot the weak performers. Joseph Piotroski developed the F-Score which employs nine different variables based on the company financial statement. A single point is assigned to each test that a stock passes. Typically, a stock scoring an 8 or 9 would be seen as strong. On the other end, a stock with a score from 0-2 would be viewed as weak.

Defining specific goals and creating an overall stock trading strategy can be a big help for the individual investor. Some investors are only interested in buy and hold strategies, while others will opt to try and capitalize on short-term market movements. Investors may also decide to do a little bit of both. They may choose a selection of stocks that they plan on holding for a long time, and they may choose others that they plan on holding for only a short period of time. Whichever way the investor decides to go, they should be prepared to complete all the research. Whether they want to study the fundamentals, technicals, or both, finding quality stocks may be at the forefront of the search.

The MF Rank developed by hedge fund manager Joel Greenblatt, is intended spot high quality companies that are trading at an attractive price. The formula uses ROIC and earnings yield ratios to find quality, undervalued stocks. In general, companies with the lowest combined rank may be the higher quality picks. The Keg Royalties Income Fund (TSX:KEG.UN) has a current MF Rank of 611.

Once the individual investor has figured out a plan to analyze stocks, they can begin to start building a portfolio. Because not everyone has the same goals, time horizons, and risk appetites, it is hard to provide one answer to the question of how to construct the perfect winning stock portfolio. Although every investor’s goal is typically to beat the market and secure consistent profits, this is no easy accomplishment. Professionals have spent many years studying the ins and outs of the stock market. There are certain strategies that may work better during different market cycles, but it is hard to say with any certainty that they will continue to work in the future. Markets and economic landscapes are constantly changing, and being able to keep up with the changes might involve tweaking strategies that have previously been successful but no longer are.

Free Cash Flow Growth (FCF Growth) is the free cash flow of the current year minus the free cash flow from the previous year, divided by last year’s free cash flow. The FCF Growth of The Keg Royalties Income Fund (TSX:KEG.UN) is 0.063380. Free cash flow (FCF) is the cash produced by the company minus capital expenditure. This cash is what a company uses to meet its financial obligations, such as making payments on debt or to pay out dividends. The Free Cash Flow Score (FCF Score) is a helpful tool in calculating the free cash flow growth with free cash flow stability – this gives investors the overall quality of the free cash flow. The FCF Score of The Keg Royalties Income Fund (TSX:KEG.UN) is 0.735660. Experts say the higher the value, the better, as it means that the free cash flow is high, or the variability of free cash flow is low or both.

Investors may be interested in viewing the Gross Margin score on shares of The Keg Royalties Income Fund (TSX:KEG.UN). The name currently has a score of 5.00000. This score is derived from the Gross Margin (Marx) stability and growth over the previous eight years. The Gross Margin score lands on a scale from 1 to 100 where a score of 1 would be considered positive, and a score of 100 would be seen as negative.

The Return on Invested Capital (aka ROIC) for The Keg Royalties Income Fund (TSX:KEG.UN) is 0.494541. The Return on Invested Capital is a ratio that determines whether a company is profitable or not. It tells investors how well a company is turning their capital into profits. The ROIC is calculated by dividing the net operating profit (or EBIT) by the employed capital. The employed capital is calculated by subrating current liabilities from total assets. Similarly, the Return on Invested Capital Quality ratio is a tool in evaluating the quality of a company’s ROIC over the course of five years. The ROIC Quality of The Keg Royalties Income Fund (TSX:KEG.UN) is . This is calculated by dividing the five year average ROIC by the Standard Deviation of the 5 year ROIC. The ROIC 5 year average is calculated using the five year average EBIT, five year average (net working capital and net fixed assets). The ROIC 5 year average of The Keg Royalties Income Fund (TSX:KEG.UN) is 0.441244.

**Shareholder Yield**

The Shareholder Yield is a way that investors can see how much money shareholders are receiving from a company through a combination of dividends, share repurchases and debt reduction. The Shareholder Yield of The Keg Royalties Income Fund (TSX:KEG.UN) is 0.070150. This percentage is calculated by adding the dividend yield plus the percentage of shares repurchased. Dividends are a common way that companies distribute cash to their shareholders. Similarly, cash repurchases and a reduction of debt can increase the shareholder value, too. Another way to determine the effectiveness of a company’s distributions is by looking at the Shareholder yield (Mebane Faber). The Shareholder Yield (Mebane Faber) of The Keg Royalties Income Fund TSX:KEG.UN is 0.07004. This number is calculated by looking at the sum of the dividend yield plus percentage of sales repurchased and net debt repaid yield.

The Value Composite One (VC1) is a method that investors use to determine a company’s value. The VC1 of The Keg Royalties Income Fund (TSX:KEG.UN) is 42. A company with a value of 0 is thought to be an undervalued company, while a company with a value of 100 is considered an overvalued company. The VC1 is calculated using the price to book value, price to sales, EBITDA to EV, price to cash flow, and price to earnings. Similarly, the Value Composite Two (VC2) is calculated with the same ratios, but adds the Shareholder Yield. The Value Composite Two of The Keg Royalties Income Fund (TSX:KEG.UN) is 32.

**Key Ratios**

The Keg Royalties Income Fund (TSX:KEG.UN) presently has a current ratio of 3.45. The current ratio, also known as the working capital ratio, is a liquidity ratio that displays the proportion of current assets of a business relative to the current liabilities. The ratio is simply calculated by dividing current liabilities by current assets. The ratio may be used to provide an idea of the ability of a certain company to pay back its liabilities with assets. Typically, the higher the current ratio the better, as the company may be more capable of paying back its obligations.

The Keg Royalties Income Fund (TSX:KEG.UN)’s Leverage Ratio was recently noted as 0.059677. This ratio is calculated by dividing total debt by total assets plus total assets previous year, divided by two. The leverage of a company is relative to the amount of debt on the balance sheet. This ratio is often viewed as one measure of the financial health of a firm.

The Price to book ratio is the current share price of a company divided by the book value per share. The Price to Book ratio for The Keg Royalties Income Fund TSX:KEG.UN is 2.057469. A lower price to book ratio indicates that the stock might be undervalued. Similarly, Price to cash flow ratio is another helpful ratio in determining a company’s value. The Price to Cash Flow for The Keg Royalties Income Fund (TSX:KEG.UN) is 7.834540. This ratio is calculated by dividing the market value of a company by cash from operating activities. Additionally, the price to earnings ratio is another popular way for analysts and investors to determine a company’s profitability. The price to earnings ratio for The Keg Royalties Income Fund (TSX:KEG.UN) is 7.789692. This ratio is found by taking the current share price and dividing by earnings per share.

One of the most basic ideas that goes along with the stock market is buy low and sell high. Although this advice is overly obvious, many new investors will do the exact opposite when trading stocks. Inexperienced investors have the tendency to buy stocks that have been performing the best recently. This may be caused by certain factors such as not looking into the underlying fundamentals or just hoping that the stock will continue to rise. Rookie investors may also make the error of holding onto shares that continue to drop in value. Instead of cutting the loser loose, they hold off with the hope that eventually the stock will at least get back to the breakeven point.