Polaris Infrastructure Inc. (TSX:PIF) boasts a Price to Book ratio of 0.646017. This ratio is calculated by dividing the current share price by the book value per share. Investors may use Price to Book to display how the market portrays the value of a stock. Checking in on some other ratios, the company has a Price to Cash Flow ratio of 3.433064, and a current Price to Earnings ratio of 10.581770. The P/E ratio is one of the most common ratios used for figuring out whether a company is overvalued or undervalued.

When getting into the markets, most investors realize that riskier stocks may have an increased potential for higher returns. If investors decide to take a chance on some of these stocks, they may want to employ some standard techniques to help manage that risk. This may involve creating a diversified stock portfolio. Mixing up the portfolio with stocks from different sectors, market caps, and growth potential, may be the right move. In general, the goal is to maximize returns in accordance with the individual’s specific risk profile. It should be obvious that no matter how well rounded the portfolio is, there are always risks in the equity markets. Having a sound plan before investing can help ease the burden of knowing that markets can sometimes do crazy things without any rhyme or reason.

Volatility/PI

Stock volatility is a percentage that indicates whether a stock is a desirable purchase. Investors look at the Volatility 12m to determine if a company has a low volatility percentage or not over the course of a year. The Volatility 12m of Polaris Infrastructure Inc. (TSX:PIF) is 44.328100. This is calculated by taking weekly log normal returns and standard deviation of the share price over one year annualized. The lower the number, a company is thought to have low volatility. The Volatility 3m is a similar percentage determined by the daily log normal returns and standard deviation of the share price over 3 months. The Volatility 3m of Polaris Infrastructure Inc. (TSX:PIF) is 46.008000. The Volatility 6m is the same, except measured over the course of six months. The Volatility 6m is 47.812100.

The Price Index is a ratio that indicates the return of a share price over a past period. The price index of Polaris Infrastructure Inc. (TSX:PIF) for last month was 0.94874. This is calculated by taking the current share price and dividing by the share price one month ago. If the ratio is greater than 1, then that means there has been an increase in price over the month. If the ratio is less than 1, then we can determine that there has been a decrease in price. Similarly, investors look up the share price over 12 month periods. The Price Index 12m for Polaris Infrastructure Inc. (TSX:PIF) is 0.65283.

Further, we can see that Polaris Infrastructure Inc. (TSX:PIF) has a Shareholder Yield of 0.073048 and a Shareholder Yield (Mebane Faber) of -0.03235. The first value is calculated by adding the dividend yield to the percentage of repurchased shares. The second value adds in the net debt repaid yield to the calculation. Shareholder yield has the ability to show how much money the firm is giving back to shareholders via a few different avenues. Companies may issue new shares and buy back their own shares. This may occur at the same time. Investors may also use shareholder yield to gauge a baseline rate of return.

Checking in on some valuation rankings, Polaris Infrastructure Inc. (TSX:PIF) has a Value Composite score of 9. Developed by James O’Shaughnessy, the VC score uses five valuation ratios. These ratios are price to earnings, price to cash flow, EBITDA to EV, price to book value, and price to sales. The VC is displayed as a number between 1 and 100. In general, a company with a score closer to 0 would be seen as undervalued, and a score closer to 100 would indicate an overvalued company. Adding a sixth ratio, shareholder yield, we can view the Value Composite 2 score which is currently sitting at 5.

Polaris Infrastructure Inc. (TSX:PIF) has a current MF Rank of 5075. Developed by hedge fund manager Joel Greenblatt, the intention of the formula is to spot high quality companies that are trading at an attractive price. The formula uses ROIC and earnings yield ratios to find quality, undervalued stocks. In general, companies with the lowest combined rank may be the higher quality picks.

There are many different tools to determine whether a company is profitable or not. One of the most popular ratios is the “Return on Assets” (aka ROA). This score indicates how profitable a company is relative to its total assets. The Return on Assets for Polaris Infrastructure Inc. (TSX:PIF) is 0.029802. This number is calculated by dividing net income after tax by the company’s total assets. A company that manages their assets well will have a higher return, while a company that manages their assets poorly will have a lower return.

The Piotroski F-Score is a scoring system between 1-9 that determines a firm’s financial strength. The score helps determine if a company’s stock is valuable or not. The Piotroski F-Score of Polaris Infrastructure Inc. (TSX:PIF) is 7. A score of nine indicates a high value stock, while a score of one indicates a low value stock. The score is calculated by the return on assets (ROA), Cash flow return on assets (CFROA), change in return of assets, and quality of earnings. It is also calculated by a change in gearing or leverage, liquidity, and change in shares in issue. The score is also determined by change in gross margin and change in asset turnover.

Investors may be interested in viewing the Gross Margin score on shares of Polaris Infrastructure Inc. (TSX:PIF). The name currently has a score of 1.00000. This score is derived from the Gross Margin (Marx) stability and growth over the previous eight years. The Gross Margin score lands on a scale from 1 to 100 where a score of 1 would be considered positive, and a score of 100 would be seen as negative.

Active investors are typically interested in the factors that drive stock price movements. Buying an individual stock means that you own a piece of the company. The hope is that the company does very well and becomes highly profitable. A profitable company may decide to do various things with the profits. They may reinvest profits back into the business, or they may choose to pay shareholders dividends from those earnings. Sometimes stocks may eventually become undervalued or overvalued. Spotting these trends may lead to further examination or the underlying fundamentals of the company. A company that continues to disappoint on the earnings front may have some issues that need to be addressed. It is highly important to make sure all the research is done on a stock, especially if the investor is heavily weighted on the name. Sometimes earnings reports may be good, but the stock price does not reflect that. Having a good understanding of the entire picture may help investors better travel the winding stock market road.

Vinda International Holdings Limited (SEHK:3331) has a Price to Book ratio of 2.181952. This ratio has been calculated by dividing the current share price by the book value per share. Investors may use Price to Book to display how the market portrays the value of a stock. Checking in on some other ratios, the company has a Price to Cash Flow ratio of 14.300161, and a current Price to Earnings ratio of 29.336379. The P/E ratio is one of the most common ratios used for figuring out whether a company is overvalued or undervalued.

When conducting stock analysis, investors have a wide array of various classifications to choose from. Growth stocks generally have the potential to produce above average profit growth and revenues. These types of stocks tend to expand quicker than the economy as a whole. Investors also have the option of adding cyclical stocks to the portfolio. Cyclicals are generally companies whose earnings and sales are highly correlated with that of the overall economy. When the economy is doing well, cyclical stocks may be more in favor. Investors may decide to go in another direction when the economy is dragging. When an economic downturn is underway, investors may choose to select defensive stocks. These types of stocks generally stand up well during down periods based on their insulation from the business cycle. Investors also have the option of purchasing foreign stocks to help add some diversity to the portfolio.

There are many different tools to determine whether a company is profitable or not. One of the most popular ratios is the “Return on Assets” (aka ROA). This score indicates how profitable a company is relative to its total assets. The Return on Assets for Vinda International Holdings Limited (SEHK:3331) is 0.034221. This number is calculated by dividing net income after tax by the company’s total assets. A company that manages their assets well will have a higher return, while a company that manages their assets poorly will have a lower return.

The Piotroski F-Score is a scoring system between 1-9 that determines a firm’s financial strength. The score helps determine if a company’s stock is valuable or not. The Piotroski F-Score of Vinda International Holdings Limited (SEHK:3331) is 4. A score of nine indicates a high value stock, while a score of one indicates a low value stock. The score is calculated by the return on assets (ROA), Cash flow return on assets (CFROA), change in return of assets, and quality of earnings. It is also calculated by a change in gearing or leverage, liquidity, and change in shares in issue. The score is also determined by change in gross margin and change in asset turnover.

Investors may be interested in viewing the Gross Margin score on shares of Vinda International Holdings Limited (SEHK:3331). The name currently has a score of 9.00000. This score is derived from the Gross Margin (Marx) stability and growth over the previous eight years. The Gross Margin score lands on a scale from 1 to 100 where a score of 1 would be considered positive, and a score of 100 would be seen as negative.

Vinda International Holdings Limited (SEHK:3331) has a current MF Rank of 7668. Developed by hedge fund manager Joel Greenblatt, the intention of the formula is to spot high quality companies that are trading at an attractive price. The formula uses ROIC and earnings yield ratios to find quality, undervalued stocks. In general, companies with the lowest combined rank may be the higher quality picks.

Further, we can see that Vinda International Holdings Limited (SEHK:3331) has a Shareholder Yield of 0.011973 and a Shareholder Yield (Mebane Faber) of 0.01156. The first value is calculated by adding the dividend yield to the percentage of repurchased shares. The second value adds in the net debt repaid yield to the calculation. Shareholder yield has the ability to show how much money the firm is giving back to shareholders via a few different avenues. Companies may issue new shares and buy back their own shares. This may occur at the same time. Investors may also use shareholder yield to gauge a baseline rate of return.

Checking in on some valuation rankings, Vinda International Holdings Limited (SEHK:3331) has a Value Composite score of 41. Developed by James O’Shaughnessy, the VC score uses five valuation ratios. These ratios are price to earnings, price to cash flow, EBITDA to EV, price to book value, and price to sales. The VC is displayed as a number between 1 and 100. In general, a company with a score closer to 0 would be seen as undervalued, and a score closer to 100 would indicate an overvalued company. Adding a sixth ratio, shareholder yield, we can view the Value Composite 2 score which is currently sitting at 38.

**Volatility/PI**

Stock volatility is a percentage that indicates whether a stock is a desirable purchase. Investors look at the Volatility 12m to determine if a company has a low volatility percentage or not over the course of a year. The Volatility 12m of Vinda International Holdings Limited (SEHK:3331) is 28.375700. This is calculated by taking weekly log normal returns and standard deviation of the share price over one year annualized. The lower the number, a company is thought to have low volatility. The Volatility 3m is a similar percentage determined by the daily log normal returns and standard deviation of the share price over 3 months. The Volatility 3m of Vinda International Holdings Limited (SEHK:3331) is 35.087100. The Volatility 6m is the same, except measured over the course of six months. The Volatility 6m is 33.515400.

The Price Index is a ratio that indicates the return of a share price over a past period. The price index of Vinda International Holdings Limited (SEHK:3331) for last month was 1.02442. This is calculated by taking the current share price and dividing by the share price one month ago. If the ratio is greater than 1, then that means there has been an increase in price over the month. If the ratio is less than 1, then we can determine that there has been a decrease in price. Similarly, investors look up the share price over 12 month periods. The Price Index 12m for Vinda International Holdings Limited (SEHK:3331) is 1.12709.

Once the investor has calculated risk and decided on a suitable time horizon, they may be wondering how to best start doing research on particular stocks and the market in general. Working from the top and filtering down, investors may start by studying the overall economy, specific industries, and other markets. Economic trends can have an influence on company earnings, and it is generally beneficial to be aware of what is going on locally and around the globe. Individual investors may decide that they want to start from the bottom and work their way up. This may involve studying specific stocks and looking for ones that are strong, cheap, and solidly performing on the earnings front. Some individuals will combine both methods with the goal of understanding all aspects that could possibly affect the stock market.